Whether you're an elderly individual or couple looking for loyal companionship, or a family in search of a pet who's loyal, spunky, affectionate, and lively, the Pomeranian is a furry bundle of energy that will bring plenty of joy to your life. Beautiful to look at and at times a bit “full of himself,” this is one of the most popular dog breeds today.
Related to the Spitz family, the Pomeranian is a furry, small dog that originated from the blustery Arctic circle regions of Lapland and Iceland. Named for the area of northern Poland and eastern Germany known historically as the Pomeranian region of Central Europe, the Pomeranian is classified as a toy breed due to its small size. A descendant of the German Spitz, the breed is known as the DwarfSpitz or Zwergspitz in many countries.
Ancestors of the Pomeranian are surmised to have been working dogs that were larger in size and from the Arctic regions. Before the breed's introduction into the United Kingdom, proper documentation on the history of the breed was lacking. In 1764, the Pomeranian was referenced in a recording by James Boswell in his diary entitled "Boswell on the Grand Tour: Germany and Switzerland."
The evolution of the Pomeranian was influenced in 1767 by two members of the British Royal Family: Queen Charlotte, Queen-consort of King George III of England; and Queen Victoria, Queen Charlotte's granddaughter. Queen Charlotte's Pomeranians, Phoebe and Mercury, were included in paintings crafted by Sir Thomas Gainsborough, while Queen Victoria loved the breed and established a breeding kennel.
In England in 1891, the first breed club was developed for the Pom; 1898 was the first year a Pomeranian was registered in America to the American Kennel Club. The breed was recognized by the AKC in 1900.
Pomeranians are a lightweight, small breed in general, usually ranging from about 4 to 8 pounds as adults. A Pomeranian puppy can grow to a height that ranges from about 5 to 11 inches.
This is one breed that comes in a wide array of colors including black, white, brown, red, gold, cream, or any combination of these colors. The most common colors seen in Pomeranian puppies are black, gold, and white, perhaps because these are the most popular colors for those who desire the breed as pets. An abundantly textured double coat and a feathery plumed tail set high and flat make this one cute puppy!
Dark eyes are usually medium in size, almond-shaped and bright in appearance. The Pomeranian dog has a straight, fine and short muzzle and an alert expression often perceived as “fox-like.”
Delightfully aware of everything and everyone, the Pomeranian dog is curious, commanding, andsometimes even cocky. This is one cute little bundle of fur that while keenly alert and extremely intelligent sometimes thinks that he or she is "hot stuff."
Friendly and protective of their owners, Pomeranian puppies should be trained to spend some time alone, otherwise they could suffer from separation anxiety when the family is away at work or school, or for any extended period of time. Barking excessively can become a problem if not addressed early on, as the Pomeranian is a dog that is extremely aware of strangers or other changes in its environment, and defensive of its territory.
Pomeranian's Proper Environment
Nearly any environment is suitable for Pomeranian puppies to grow in: apartment, suburban home, or a farmhouse in the country. An ideal companion for elderly individuals, this is a breed that enjoys an active family atmosphere and is happy in any home no matter how large or small.
The Pomeranian dog is very active indoors, slightly less active outdoors. Some Pomeranian puppies are better in the company of adults, while others get along well with children, although most are better suited to older children. Though tolerant of most climates, the Pomeranian dog loves to live indoors; however, those who live in apartments or other close quarters may want to consider the Pom's tendency to bark.
While the Pomeranian dog is healthy overall, there are certain health issues that seem to affect the breed. These include PRA (progressive retinal atrophy), cataracts, allergies, low blood sugar, entropion (an eyelid disorder), and collapsing trachea.
The average lifespan for the Pomeranian dog is 12 to 15 years. Pomeranians that are properly exercised and given a good diet should have relatively few health problems. Because of their light build, most are less prone to hip dysplasia than many other breeds.
Pomeranian Merle-colored dogs and possible health issues:
Merle-colored Pomeranians sometimes face special health issues other colors do not typically have, including ametropia (a visual impairment), microphthalmia (a congenital smallness of the eye), anddeafness. When both parents are also Merles, your dog may suffer from cardiac and skeletal abnormalities, as well as issues with the reproductive system. Merle-colored dogs of other breeds are similarly susceptible to these kinds of conditions.
Although the coat of the Pomeranian is long and thick, it doesn't require a substantial amount of grooming as other long-haired breeds often do. Brushing daily or two to three times per week will remove loose, dead hair. It is not necessary to clip your Pomeranian to keep his or her coat looking healthy and luxurious, as regular brushing and a healthy diet rich in nutrients will take care of this for you.
Depending upon whether you intend to show your Pomeranian, most should be bathed at four- to six-week intervals during winter months, then every one to two weeks during milder seasons. Bathing is important for keeping ear mites at bay, and for removing dust and dirt that can be abrasive to your pet's coat.
It's also important that you clean your Pomeranian's teeth on a regular basis to keep them healthy and free of tartar build-up. Just as with humans, a dog's health can be affected when dental disease is present.
Group Classification: Northern, Spitz Family/Toy Group
Country of Origin: N/A
Date of Origin: N/A
Shedding: Moderate Shed
Body Size: N/A
Weight M: 3-7 pounds
Height M: 7-12 inches
Weight F: 3-7 pounds
Height F: 7-12inches
Litter Size: 1-2 puppies often require Cesarean sections
Life Expectancy: 12-16 years
Recognized By: CKC, AKC, UKC, ANKC, NKC, NZKC, APRI, ACR
All patterns and colors are acceptable, including black and tan, brindle, parti-color, and solid colors such as black, blue, tan cream, brown, red, and sable. Blue and black Pomeranians are particularly valued in North America, but a large number of the Pomeranians you'll see on a daily basis are parti-colored, often with a darker face than the rest of their bodies.
Pomeranians are perfectly suited to indoor living, and will even do quite well in an apartment. They are spirited dogs, and do require exercise. However, due to their size, they can get most of what they need running around the house. They can be picky eaters, and since they need to be fed dry dog food in order to prevent tooth loss, feeding them can be a problem. They can get overheated because of their large amount of fur, and should not be left outdoors or in a car in hot weather. However, they are quite tolerant of cold temperatures, though they should not be left outdoors in severe cold either, simply because of their size.